History and political structure
The dozens of civilizations offered in Anatolia Heimat is the present territory of the Republic of Turkey. This peninsula has received much attention from the then Hittites and Romans and their civilizations. Numerous monuments, works of art and ancient cities have remained of modern Turkey and the world as a cultural heritage.
The first Turkish empire was founded by the Seljuks in Anatolia. The capital city Konya, the Seljuks, conquered in the XI century by the Mongols. XIV century, the Ottoman state was founded and grew very quickly. First Bursa, then Edirne, the capital of the Ottoman state were extended to three continents. In the XV century Istanbul was conquered which then became the new capital of the Ottoman state. The Ottoman borders have grown from East to West, from North to south on 3 continents by kilometers.
In the XIX century, however, the Ottoman Empire can no longer keep pace with the evolving world and tensions begin.
XX century the first World War arose and the Ottoman Empire with The Associated Anatolia began to be occupied by imperialist powers.
On 19.On May 10, 1919 in Samsun, Turkey began the fight for freedom and independence under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal, distributed throughout Anatolia.
In 1922 in Turkey, invading Greek armies into the sea in Izmir and therefore wins the fight for independence.
According to the Treaty of Lausanne in 1923, everyone knows the new borders of Turkey.
On 29. On 19 October 1923, the Republic of Turkey was founded under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk and his friends in arms.
Political structure in Turkey
The Turkish Republic is a unitary structure and has a democratic, secular state of law.
According to the Constitution it is a Republic and the form of government and sovereignty belongs unconditionally to the Nation. There are three powers used in the name of Turkey and these three powers are Legislative, executive and judicial.
The Legislature is elected and appointed by 550 members of the Grand National Assembly for four years. (Parliament)
The Executive branch is administered by the President of the Republic of Turkey, and is used by the Prime Minister of the government.
Judgments are used by independent courts on behalf of the Turkish Nation.
The democratic Republic of Turkey is a secular state of Law, and is guaranteed by the Constitution.
All Turkish citizens have the right to go and be elected at the age of 18. In order to be elected as a member of Parliament, one must have reached an age of 30 and at least have completed the primary school.
With the change in 2007 it is the case that in Turkey every 5 years elects a president.
In order to become president of the Republic of Turkey, Turkish citizens must have an age of at least 40 years and be a graduate.